Food & Beverage - Europe, Middle East, Africa

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Cargill’s C☆Dex™ dextrose has become an essential ingredient in a wide range of food and beverage applications, both for its functional, sensorial as well as nutritional properties. With its pleasant, clean and sweet, cooling taste, it has been used for years as a sweetener in a wide range of food applications.

Brand: C☆Dex dextrose

Category Applications
Bakery
  • Fermented products
  • Cookies & Biscuits
  • Cakes
  • Icing & Glazes
Beverages
  • Soft drinks
  • Energy drinks
  • Alcoholic beverages (light beers, specialty beers, ciders, wines)
  • Beverage powders
Confectionery
  • Tofees, caramels, fudge
  • Marshmallows
  • Candy filling
  • Chewing gum
  • Tablets
  • Panning
  • Chocolate
  • Batters & Coatings
Convenience Foods
  • Food powders
  • Dressings & Condiments
  • Pickled products
  • Instant teas
  • Vending powders
  • Fish products & Marinades
  • Spices & Seasonings
  • Batters & Coatings
Dairy
  • Frozen desserts
  • Desserts
  • Fermented desserts
  • Milk drinks
  • Creams & Fillings
Fruit
  • Dried fruits
Food Ingredients
  • Hydrocolloid mixes
Meat
  • Fermented meat
Snacks & Cereals
  • Breakfast cereals

 

Related items

Chemistry

If ever a sweetener could be considered ubiquitous, it would be dextrose, often referred to as “grape sugar” or “blood sugar”.  It is a sugar occurring widely in nature – in honey and many fruits for example. As a constituent of cellulose, starch and glycogen, it is found in all plants and animals.

Just like sugar, dextrose consists of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen. However, no further comparison is possible, since several features differentiate dextrose from sugar. A number of important differences are, in large part, due to their different molecular weights (sucrose: 342; dextrose: 180).

Dextrose is a synonym of D-glucose and refers to the pure, crystalline monosaccharide obtained after a total hydrolysis of starch. It exists in two forms — dextrose monohydrate which contains one molecule crystal water in contrast to anhydrous dextrose, which contains none.

(IMAGE D-Glucopyranose)

  Monohydrate Anhydrous
Formula C6H12O6H2O C6H12O6
Molecular weight 198 180
Dextrose content (% on D.B.) Min. 99.5 Min. 99.5
Moisture % 8.0 - 9.5 % Max. 1.0 %
Melting point °C (°F) 83 (181) 146 (295)
Heat of solution (25°C) J/g -105.5 -59.3

 

Functional properties

Reducing sugar

Dextrose is a reducing sugar. The reducing power of a sugar is measured by its ability to reduce solutions of alkaline copper sulphate (Fehling’s solution) to cuprous oxide. The dextrose equivalent (DE) of pure dextrose is defined as 100. Expressed as a percentage of the reducing value of pure dextrose and calculated on a dry weight basis, the total reducing value of a starch hydrolysate is referred to as its DE.

Maillard reaction

The classic browning in food systems is due to the interaction of reducing sugars and acidified protein compounds. Due to its active aldehyde groups, dextrose is a powerful reducing sugar and promotes rapid buildup of browning.

Crystal form

At temperatures below 55 °C (131°F) dextrose crystallizes from aqueous concentrated solutions in the monohydrate form, in which each dextrose crystal contains 1 molecule crystal water per molecule dextrose (Dx-Monohydrate). Above 55 °C (131°F) the anhydrous form is crystallizing where the dextrose crystal contains no crystal water.

Sweetness control

With its pleasant, clean and sweet, cooling taste, dextrose has been used for years as a sweetener in a wide range of food applications. Dextrose is one of the sweetest of the starch derived sugars. On a scale on which sucrose is assigned a sweetness value of 100, dextrose is rated at 75.

Its sweetness is influenced by a variety of factors such as temperature, acidity, salts, flavoring materials, sweetener concentration and the nature of other sugars present. Contrary to sucrose, dextrose is not subject to the process known as inversion, and therefore its degree of sweetness does not change.

Dextrose and sucrose are often used together to control and balance sweetness and total solids. When dextrose and sucrose are combined, they exhibit a synergy. At a 40 percent replacement level, for example, the apparent relative sweetness of dextrose could be as high as 90.

Heat of solution

The heats of solution of dextrose monohydrate (-105.5 J/g) and of anhydrous dextrose (-59.3 J/g) differ greatly from that of sucrose (-16.1 J/g). Hence, the heat required to dissolve dextrose is approximately 10 times greater than for sucrose. Consequently, when eating food containing dextrose in crystalline state, there is a distinct cooling sensation in the mouth. The perception of sweetness is shortened and flavor enhancement is improved.

Solubility

Crystalline dextrose is readily soluble in water but only slightly in ethanol and hardly soluble in other organic solvents. At temperatures higher than 55°C (131°F), dextrose is more soluble than sucrose.

In addition, at any given specific temperature, there is an optimum sucrose-dextrose saturation ratio that raises total solubility above that of the individual components.

Freezing point

Dextrose, because of its low molecular weight, has the capacity to decrease the freezing point. At a 30% concentration, the freezing point of a dextrose solution is 2°C lower than that of a comparable sucrose solution - crucial in the production and consumption of ice-cream.
 The freezing point depression factor (FPDF) is typically used for calculations in the ice-cream industry. The FPDF factor for sucrose is 1.00 compared to 1.90 for dextrose.
H2O

[IMAGE Freezing point depression]

Fermentability

Because it is a monosaccharide, dextrose is the ideal carbohydrate source for yeast fermentation in baking and brewing. The fermentation begins immediately and proceeds rapidly. Dextrose provides energy to the cell to produce many by-products in addition to carbodioxide and ethanol. Also, dextrose is used in lactic acid fermentation processes in the pickling and the meat industry.

Flavor

Dextrose is often used in combination with sugar or other sweeteners. It acts to shorten the sweetness perception and enhance the original food flavor.

Stability

Dextrose is a reducing sugar and improves, in comparison with sucrose, the inhibition of oxidative degradation, thus increasing color stabilization. This can help to extend the shelf life of food products.

Bulking agent

Dextrose monohydrate and anhydrous dextrose are available in a variety of particle size distributions and granulometry to provide ease and stability of blending. Coarse dextrose products are perfect in relation to flowability and dust minimalisation.

Nutritional properties

Dextrose is the basic energy source of animal metabolism. As a nutrient, its energy value in the human organism is 17kJ/g. It is in addition the main energetic substrate the brain uses.

Dextrose is quickly absorbed from the small intestine. It produces a rapid glycemic response and provides an immediate source of energy for the organs, muscles and brain. Alternatively, it can be stored as glycogen in the liver or in muscles, so forming the body’s energy reserves.

Energy management

Carbohydrates should contribute to 55 percent of the daily energy intake for human beings, which means that for a daily requirement of 2.000 calories, the consumption of around 300 g carbohydrates is recommended. Dextrose can contribute partly to this calorie intake.

It is generally accepted that carbohydrate feeding during exercise can improve endurance capacity (time to exhaustion) and exercise performance during prolonged exercise (>2h). There are several mechanisms by which carbohydrate feeding during exercise can improve performance. These include maintaining blood glucose and high levels of carbohydrate oxidation, sparing endogenous glycogen, synthesizing glycogen.

Carbohydrates can be divided into two categories according to the rate at which they are oxidized (used as energetic substrate by the muscle cells). Dextrose is oxidized at relatively high rates (1g/min) compared to other monosaccharides like fructose and galactose (0.6 g/min), which makes dextrose an ideal carbohydrate, as performance improvements likely to be related to maintenance of high rates of carbohydrate oxidation and the prevention of hypoglycemia.

This last statement is supported by several studies, which show that ingestion of dextrose-electrolyte drinks can improve exercise performance even when the amount of added dextrose is small.

Legislation and labeling

Dextrose is regulated under the EC Directive 2001/111/EC related to sugars.

We recommend including dextrose monohydrate and anhydrous dextrose as "dextrose" in the ingredient declaration on the labels of finished foods and beverages.

Some Cargill products are only approved for use in certain geographies, end uses, and/or at certain usage levels. It is the customer's responsibility to determine, for a particular geography, that (i) the Cargill product, its use and usage levels, (ii) the customer's product and its use, and (iii) any claims made about the customer's product, all comply with applicable laws and regulations.