Almost all of the pure sugar we consume comes from one of two sources: sugar cane and sugar beets. The pure sugar they produce is essentially identical, but the path to get there can differ widely.
Sugar beets are a root product that grows in 12 states. Sugar cane is a tropical grass that requires much different growing conditions. Despite their different appearances, they share a very similar molecular composition.
And, both cane sugar and beet sugar are refined until they are 99.9%+ sucrose. While the impurities and minerals in cane sugar and beet sugar can differ slightly, the fact is those impurity levels are so low (<0.1%) there is almost no functional or sensorial difference between sugar that comes from cane or beet. Once they are refined to sucrose, they are typically interchangeable.
You may find consumers and producers that debate the merits of each sugar source, but the bottom line is that when they are refined to their essence, both sugar beets and sugar cane provide sweet, pure sugar.